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What is Passover?
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  5. Passover Seder - Wikipedia

English Revised Version Ye know that after two days the passover cometh, and the Son of man is delivered up to be crucified. Webster's Bible Translation Ye know that after two days is the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified. Weymouth New Testament "You know that in two days' time the Passover comes. And the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified. Mark Now the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were two days away, and the chief priests and scribes were looking for a covert way to arrest Jesus and kill Him. Mark "But not during the feast," they said, "or there may be a riot among the people.

John Now the Jewish Passover was near, and many people went up from the country to Jerusalem to purify themselves before the Passover. John It was now just before the Passover Feast, and Jesus knew that His hour had come to leave this world and return to the Father. Having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the very end. John This was to fulfill the word that Jesus had spoken to indicate the kind of death He was going to die.

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Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers. The Mishnah says Pes. Each cup is imbibed at a specific point in the Seder.

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The Four Cups represent the four expressions of deliverance promised by God Exodus —7 : "I will bring out," "I will deliver," "I will redeem," and "I will take. The Vilna Gaon relates the Four Cups to four worlds: this world, the Messianic age, the world at the revival of the dead, and the world to come. The three matzot , in turn, are connected to the three Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

The Miracle of the Red Sea in Our Lives

Abarbanel relates the cups to the four historical redemptions of the Jewish people: the choosing of Abraham, the Exodus from Egypt, the survival of the Jewish people throughout the exile, and the fourth which will happen at the end of days. The four cups might also reflect the Roman custom of drinking as many cups as there are letters in the name of the chief guest at a meal, which in the case of the Seder is God Himself whose Hebrew name has four letters.

The special Passover Seder plate ke'are is a special plate containing symbolic foods used during the Passover Seder. Each of the six items arranged on the plate has special significance to the retelling of the story of the Exodus from Egypt. The seventh symbolic item used during the meal — a stack of three matzot — is placed on its own plate on the Seder table. Since the retelling of the Exodus to one's child is the object of the Seder experience, much effort is made to arouse the interest and curiosity of the children and keep them awake during the meal.

To that end, questions and answers are a central device in the Seder ritual. By encouraging children to ask questions, they will be more open to hearing the answers. The most famous question which the youngest child asks at the Seder is the " Ma Nishtana " — 'Why is this night different from all other nights? Also, at different points in the Seder, the leader of the Seder will cover the matzot and lift their cup of wine; then put down the cup of wine and uncover the matzot — all to elicit questions from the children. In Sephardic tradition, the questions are asked by the assembled company in chorus rather than by a child, and are put to the leader of the seder, who either answers the question or may direct the attention of the assembled company to someone who is acting out that particular part of the Exodus.

Man Seders: A Call To Reassess Shul Programming

Physical re-enactment of the Exodus during the Passover seder is common in many families and communities, especially amongst Sephardim. Families will follow the Haggadah's lead by asking their own questions at various points in the Haggadah and offering prizes such as nuts and candies for correct answers. The afikoman , which is hidden away for the "dessert" after the meal, is another device used to encourage children's participation.

In some families, the leader of the Seder hides the afikoman and the children must find it, whereupon they receive a prize or reward. In other homes, the children hide the afikoman and a parent must look for it; when the parents give up, the children demand a prize often money for revealing its location.

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The order and procedures of the Seder are stated and printed in the text of the Passover Haggadah , a copy of which is in front of all participants. The following words, denoting the order of the Seder are traditionally recited before anything else is said [ citation needed ]. Jewish children are often taught this with a rhyme and tune at their Jewish schools:. Shulchan Orech. It should be recited as soon as the synagogue services are over but not before nightfall.

Acting in a way that shows freedom and majesty, many Jews have the custom of filling each other's cups at the Seder table. The Kiddush is traditionally said by the father of the house, but all Seder participants may participate by reciting the Kiddush and drinking at least a majority of the first cup of wine.

Technically, according to Jewish law , whenever one partakes of fruits or vegetables dipped in liquid while remaining wet, one must wash one's hands if the fruit or vegetable remains wet. However, at other times of the year, one has either already washed their hands before eating bread, or dry the fruit or vegetable, in which case one need not wash their hands before eating the fruit or vegetable.

According to most traditions, no blessing is recited at this point in the Seder, unlike the blessing recited over the washing of the hands before eating bread. However, followers of Rambam or the Gaon of Vilna do recite a blessing. Each participant dips a vegetable into either salt water Ashkenazi custom; said to serve as a reminder of the tears shed by their enslaved ancestors , vinegar Sephardi custom or charoset older Sephardi custom; still common among Yemenite Jews. Another custom mentioned in some Ashkenazi sources and probably originating with Meir of Rothenburg , [ citation needed ] was to dip the karpas in wine.

Three matzot are stacked on the seder table; at this stage, the middle matzah of the three is broken in half. The larger piece is hidden, to be used later as the afikoman , the "dessert" after the meal.

The smaller piece is returned to its place between the other two matzot. The story of Passover, and the change from slavery to freedom is told. At this point in the Seder, Moroccan Jews have a custom of raising the Seder plate over the heads of all those present while chanting "Bivhilu yatzanu mimitzrayim, halahma anya b'nei horin" In haste we went out of Egypt [with our] bread of affliction, [now we are] free people. The matzot are uncovered, and referred to as the "bread of affliction".

Participants declare in Aramaic an invitation to all who are hungry or needy to join in the Seder.

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Halakha requires that this invitation be repeated in the native language of the country. The Mishna details questions one is obligated to ask on the night of the seder. It is customary for the youngest child present to recite the four questions. In some families, this means that the requirement remains on an adult "child" until a grandchild of the family receives sufficient Jewish education to take on the responsibility.

If a person has no children capable of asking, the responsibility falls to their spouse, or another participant. Ma nishtana ha lyla ha zeh mikkol hallaylot? Why is this night different from all other nights? The second question substitutes for a different question, present in the mishnah but removed by later authorities due to its inapplicability after the destruction of the temple :. Roasted sacrifices were no longer possible after the destruction, and roasted meat was therefore disallowed on seder night, to avoid ambiguity. The four questions have been translated into over languages.

The traditional Haggadah speaks of "four sons" — one who is wise, one who is wicked, one who is simple, and one who does not know to ask. This is based upon the rabbis of the Jerusalem Talmud finding four references in the Torah to responding to your son who asks a question. The Haggadah recommends answering each son according to his question, using one of the three verses in the Torah that refer to this exchange. The wise son asks "What are the statutes, the testimonies, and the laws that God has commanded us to do?

He is answered fully: "You should reply to him with [all] the laws of pesach: one may not eat any dessert after the paschal sacrifice. The wicked son, who asks, "What is this service to you? Therefore, he is rebuked by the explanation that "It is because God acted for my sake when I left Egypt. Where the four sons are illustrated in the Haggadah, this son has frequently been depicted as carrying weapons or wearing stylish contemporary fashions.

The simple son, who asks, "What is this? And the one who does not know to ask is told, "It is because of what the Almighty did for me when I left Egypt. Some modern Haggadahs mention "children" instead of "sons", and some have added a fifth child. The fifth child can represent the children of the Shoah who did not survive to ask a question [20] or represent Jews who have drifted so far from Jewish life that they do not participate in a Seder.

For the former, tradition is to say that for that child we ask "Why? Four verses in Deuteronomy —8 are then expounded, with an elaborate, traditional commentary. And thou shalt speak and say before the Lord thy God: 'A wandering Aramean was my parent, and they went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage.

And we cried unto the Lord, the God of our parents, and the Lord heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression. The Haggadah explores the meaning of those verses, and embellishes the story.

Passover Seder - Wikipedia

This telling describes the slavery of the Jewish people and their miraculous salvation by God. This culminates in an enumeration of the Ten Plagues :. With the recital of the Ten Plagues, each participant removes a drop of wine from his or her cup using a fingertip. Although this night is one of salvation, Don Isaac Abravanel explains that one cannot be completely joyous when some of God's creatures had to suffer. At this part in the Seder, songs of praise are sung, including the song Dayenu , which proclaims that had God performed any single one of the many deeds performed for the Jewish people, it would have been enough to obligate us to give thanks.

After Dayenu is a declaration mandated by Rabban Gamliel of the reasons of the commandments of the Paschal lamb , Matzah , and Maror , with scriptural sources.